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17 May 2024

Unearthing Excellence: A Comprehensive Guide to Borehole Pump Installation for Seamless Water Sourcing

In the domain of water sourcing solutions, borehole pumps are considered a dependable and effective option for a wide range of uses, including residential wells and agricultural irrigation systems. Nevertheless, successfully navigating the complexities of borehole pump installation necessitates meticulous thought and specialized knowledge to guarantee optimal performance and durability. Within this extensive manual, we will delve into the crucial steps and factors involved in selecting, installing, and maintaining a borehole pump system.

Choosing the right Borehole Pump

When it comes to selecting the right borehole pump, one size does not fit all. With a myriad of options available it’s crucial to understand your specific water sourcing needs and the characteristics of your borehole.

Understanding Borehole Pumps:

A borehole pump is a vertical pump that is placed inside a borehole, which is a narrow drilled hole, in order to extract groundwater to the surface. Boreholes are anywhere between 12 to 400 meters deep. These pumps are essential for water access, particularly in times of drought or when alternative water sources are limited.

Why Choosing the Right Pump Matters:

A well-selected borehole pump can last up to 10 years or more, minimizing maintenance costs. Opting for the wrong pump can lead to unnecessary expenses and operational inefficiencies.

Borehole pump Sizes:

There are different sizes available for borehole pumps:

  • Smaller boreholes can be accommodated with 3-inch pumps.
  • For domestic and agricultural purposes, pumps ranging from 4 to 6 inches are commonly used.
  • Industrial water pumping requires the use of 8-inch or larger pumps.

It is important to measure the borehole diameter before choosing a pump, as corrosion or deposits may have altered the original size. This is crucial as it impacts the cooling of the borehole motor.

Factors to Consider:

  • Water Depth: The pump type needed for your borehole is determined by its water depth. In the case of deeper boreholes, more powerful pumps may be required.
  • Flow Rate Requirements: The flow rate requirements should be taken into consideration, depending on the amount of water needed per day as well as the water yield available from the drilled hole. Different applications such as irrigation, household use, or farming have varying flow rate demands.
  • Debris and Sediment: If your borehole contains debris or sediment, it is important to select a pump that is capable of handling such conditions.
  • What type of motor do I need: The type of motor required is determined by the available power supply as well as the immersion depth below the water level.
  • Power Supply: Before choosing a pump, make sure to check the available power supply at your location, whether it is 220V, 380V, or 525V.
  • Immersion Level: Ensure that your motor is capable of operating at the correct immersion level to avoid any issues.
  • Do I need a horizontal or vertical installation: Some applications require you to install a borehole into a reservoir which requires horizontal installation.
  • Sand Levels: Keep in mind that high sand levels can potentially impact the performance of the pump and ultimately lead to the failure of a pump.

Installation Process Breakdown

1. Introduction to Borehole Pumps:

  • Borehole pumps, also known as deep well pumps, are designed to extract water from underground sources like wells or boreholes.
  • These pumps operate underwater and efficiently lift water to the surface.
  • Benefits of Borehole Pump Systems:
    • Self-Sufficiency: Borehole pumps provide your own water source on your property, especially in areas with limited or unreliable water supply.
    • Efficiency: Because of their multi impeller design, they are more energy efficient than a standard single impeller centrifugal pump.
    • Reliability: Being submerged, they are less prone to issues like cavitation or loss of prime.
    • Discreet Installation: Typically installed underground, they don’t clutter your property with visible installations or resulting operating noise.

2. Selecting the Right Borehole Pump:

  • Assess Water Requirements:
    • Determine how much water you need (for irrigation, household use, or both).
    • Determine the borehole recharge rate, to ensure that you do not empty the hole and cause it to collapse.
    • This helps you choose the pump capacity.
  • Consider Pump Types:
    • Centrifugal Deep Well Pumps: Ideal for high flow rates.
    • Positive Displacement Deep Well Pumps: Better for low flow rates and high-pressure applications.
    • Consult with a professional to select the best type for your situation.
  • Sizing:
    • Choose a pump that matches the borehole’s diameter, depth, required lift and recharge rate.

3. Installation Steps:

  • Drilling the Borehole:
    • A professional drills the borehole to the desired depth.
  • Borehole Cleaning:
    • Remove debris and sediment from the borehole. This is usually done by the driller.
  • Casing Installation:
    • Insert a casing (usually PVC) to prevent collapse and contamination. This is usually done by the driller.
  • Pump Placement:
    • Lower the submersible pump into the borehole.
      • Ensure it’s positioned correctly for efficient water extraction. This is usually between 2 to 5 meters from the bottom of the hole, to prevent sediment from entering the pump and to give the borehole more available water to be pumped out of the hole.
  • Electrical Connections:
    • Connect the pump’s electrical cable to the power supply. This should only be performed by a qualified technician.
    • Ensure proper grounding and safety measures.
  • Testing and Troubleshooting:
    • Test the pump to verify its functionality.
    • Address any issues promptly.

Electrical Considerations and Safety Measures

1. Voltage Requirements:

  • Manufacturer Specifications: Check the electrical requirements specified by the pump manufacturer on the motor nameplate. Ensure that you have the appropriate power supply to match the pump’s voltage needs.
  • Stable Voltage: A consistent and stable voltage supply is crucial for the pump’s performance. Voltage fluctuations can affect its efficiency and lifespan.

2. Cable Sizing:

  • Correct Cable Gauge: Select the right cable size (gauge) based on the pump’s power requirements and the distance between the pump and the control panel.
  • Voltage Drop: Consider voltage drop over the cable length. Longer distances may require thicker cables to minimize voltage loss.

3. Proper Grounding Techniques:

  • Grounding the Pump: Ensure proper grounding of the pump to prevent electrical hazards. Grounding protects against electric shock and equipment damage.
  • Grounding Rods: Install grounding rods near the borehole to create a low-resistance path for electrical faults.
  • Grounding Wire: Connect the pump’s grounding wire securely to the grounding system and ensure that the ground cable is securely connected to the pump.

4. Safety Measures:

  • Circuit Protection Devices:
    • Install circuit breakers or fuses to protect against overcurrent and short circuits.
    • These devices interrupt the electrical flow when abnormalities occur.
  • Disconnect Switches:
    • Place a emergency stop switch near the pump for emergency shutdown.
    • It allows you to isolate the pump from power quickly during maintenance or emergencies.
  • Waterproof Electrical Enclosures:
    • Enclose electrical components (such as control panels) in waterproof enclosures typically with a IP65 or higher rating. This also helps protect against moisture, dust and other environmental factors.
  • Compliance with Safety Standards:
    • Follow local electrical codes and safety regulations.
    • Regular inspections and maintenance are essential to ensure ongoing compliance.

Maintenance and Troubleshooting

1. Regular Inspections:

  • Frequency: Aim for at least tri-annual inspections.
  • Signs of Trouble: Look out for any unusual signs, such as funny tastes or odours in the water, cloudy water, low water pressure, or the pump constantly turning on and off.

2. Above-Ground Borehole Inspection:

  • Visual Check: Inspect the borehole chamber above ground.
  • Leaks: Look for leaks in pipes, joints, and connections.
  • Electrical Components: Examine electrical connections, cables, and control panels.
  • Pump Performance: Monitor the pump’s performance during operation.

3. Electrical Components:

  • Check Wiring: Ensure all electrical connections are secure.
  • Grounding: Verify proper grounding to prevent electrical hazards.
  • Waterproof Enclosures: Make sure electrical components are housed in waterproof enclosures to protect against moisture and dust.

4. Troubleshooting Techniques:

  • Low Water Flow: If water flow decreases, check for clogs in the pump or pipes. This can also be a symptom of a three phase system running the motor in the incorrect direction.
  • No Water: If the pump isn’t working, inspect the power supply, fuses, and circuit breakers. Also inspect the piping inside the hole for pipe bursts, as this will result in pressure loss and the water will not exit the hole.
  • Strange Noises: Unusual noises may indicate mechanical issues; investigate promptly.

5. Emergency Preparedness:

Emergency Contacts: Keep contact details of professionals who can handle emergency breakdowns.

To summarize, achieving proficiency in the installation of borehole pumps necessitates careful preparation, specialized knowledge, and a keen eye for detail. By adhering to the instructions provided in this manual and taking into account the crucial elements involved, you can guarantee the effective installation and dependable functioning of your borehole pump system. Whether you require water for household purposes, agricultural irrigation, or industrial usage, a well-executed and adequately maintained borehole pump system serves as a valuable resource, offering a sustainable and economical water supply solution.

Embark on a journey towards optimized water extraction with professional borehole pump installation services from AxFlow AQS Liquid Transfer. Our expert team ensures that you can fully harness the potential of your pumping operations, enhancing productivity and minimizing downtime. Contact AxFlow AQS Liquid Transfer today, and let us assist you in taking your water extraction systems to the next level of performance and reliability.

Do you still have questions? Give our AQS Liquid Transfer team a call on +27 12 548 7204 or fill out our enquiry form, our friendly team will get back to you with first-hand expertise on how to select a borehole pump for your needs.

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